﻿ Impeller > Airfoil/ Hydrofoil design > Blade properties

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(1) Spans

(4) Kinematics

## Absolute and relative flow

 Absolute velocity Relative velocity Rotational speed

Fundamental kinematic equation
of Turbomachinery

## Information

In the right panel some information are displayed which result from calculated or determined values:

### (1) Velocity triangles

The velocity triangles of inflow and outflow are displayed.

Continuous lines represent flow velocities on hub (blue) and shroud (green).

Velocities directly before and behind blade area are displayed by dashed lines to show the influence of blockage in the flow domain.

Furthermore the blade angles are displayed by thick lines in order to see the incidence angle on the leading edge and the flow deviation caused by slip velocity on trailing edge.

### (2) Values

Numerical values of velocity components and flow angles are displayed in a table. The track bar on top of table can be used to get the values at any span. A short description is at mouse cursor too:

 z Axial co-ordinate d Diameter αF Angle of absolute flow to circumferential direction βF Angle of relative flow to circumferential direction u Circumferential velocity cm Meridional velocity  (cm=wm) cu Circumferential component of absolute velocity cr Radial component of absolute velocity cax Axial component of absolute velocity c Absolute velocity wu Circumferential component of relative velocity: wu+cu=u w Relative velocity τ Obstruction by blades (see below) i Incidence angle: i = βB1 - β1 δ Deviation angle: δ = βB2 - β2 w2/w1 Deceleration ratio of relative velocity ΔαF Absolute deflection angle ΔβF Relative deflection angle ΔβB Blade deflection angle γ Slip coefficient Δ(cu·r) Swirl difference M Torque Δpt Pressure difference (total-total)

### (3) Curves

Here blade angles as well as relative flow angles are displayed versus span.

Progressions of geometric parameters (angles):

 β1/2 Angle of relative flow to circumferential direction βB1/2 Blade angles at leading and trailing edge

### (4) Criteria

Progressions of aerodynamic and airfoil parameters:

 Re Reynolds-number l/t solidity DH DeHaller critierion ST Strscheletzky critierion DF01 diffusion number

## Possible warnings

Problem

Possible solutions

Values may adapt to changing input parameters.

Stagger angles and chord length are updated automatically when input parameters are modified.

To fix stagger angles and chord length uncheck "Automatic" calculation. Then calculation must started manually if required.

Automated blade angles are NOT active.
Values are fixed but may not reflect input parameters.

Stagger angles and chord length are not updated automatically if any input parameters are modified.

To be sure that all parameter modifications are considered you could switch to an automatic calculation by checking the "Automatic" option.

Check blade angles and velocity triangles.

cu2*r2 is lower than cu1*r1 (turbines: cu2*r2 is higher than cu1*r1) resulting in energy transmission in the wrong direction (Euler equation of turbomachinery).

Recalculate and/or check stagger angles γ and chord length l, check cu-cm-specification or chosen profiles.

ΔβB1/2 (leading/trailing edge) = ... is larger than warning level of ...

Blade angle difference (highest - lowest value) at all spans exceeds the warning level (see Preferences: Warning level).
The resulting blade could be highly twisted.

Check the resulting 3D blade shape and avoid high blade angle differences on spans if possible.

ΔβB (span) = ... is larger than warning level of ...

ΔβB = |βB2 - βB1| on one or more spans exceeds the warning level (see Preferences: Warning level).
The resulting blade could be highly curved.

Check the resulting 3D blade shape and avoid high blade angle differences between leading and trailing edge if possible.

Blade angles βB1/2 cannot be determined. Thermodynamic state could not be calculated. Check main dimensions, meridional shape or global setup.

[ for compressors and turbines only ]

The dimensions or meridional contour might be too tight for the specified mass flow and inlet conditions.

Increase the dimensions (width etc.), meridional contour or change the Global setup (e.g. decrease mass flow).